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Chikungunya fever is an acute febrile illness caused by a virus. Originally from Africa, now it is widespread in India and Asia. It is spread by a bite from a mosquito. Multiple species of Aedes can spread the virus. In some countries, the virus can also be transmitted to primates and other animals. Aedes egypti transmission is usually from a man to man or woman.
The virus multiplies in the mosquito and then goes to mosquito's salivary gland. Multiplication is faster in summer months in mosquitoes. After a gap of 2-5 days (called incubation period) patient develops fever and pain in multiple joints.
Sometimes more than 5 or 6 joints, usually hands, ankles knees etc are involved. Joint swelling is common. Due to the pain patients often walk with a stoop or bending up (In Tanzania Chikungunya means bending up)
A rash over trunk which may be pinkish or bright may occur over limbs, chest or abdomen. This rash fades on pressure.
Loose motions or vomitings may be seen.
Pain and fever subsides in 3-5 days. In some cases joint pains may persist for 3-6 months.
It was earlier believed that complications and fatalitiesdo do not occur due to chikungunya. However, now both have been reported but are rare.
Involvement of heart, lungs, liver, kidneys and brain may occur.
The disease is diagnosed by looking for antibodies in the blood against this virus.
Treatment is directed towards relief of fever and joint pains.
The disease can be prevented by taking prevention against mosquito breeding and bites.
For patients suffering from type II /adult onset diabetes :In type II diabetes, diagnosis is often late (after the disease has already been present for some time). In early days T2DM (short for the adult type of diabetes) are often without symptoms. Hence the delay in diagnosis. This means complications will be seen early after diagnosis. Foot Care :
Foot disease in diabetes may lead to difficulty in walking, pain and may lead to infections. If neglected amputation may be required.
Inspect feet with a mirror before going to sleep every night.
Use well fitting shoewear.
Do not walk bare feet even in the house.
Socks should be clean and correct size.
In case of deformities of feet, special shoes can be worn. Eye Care :
It is nowadays the commonest cause of blindness throughout the world. Continue Reading ~ Second Medical Opinion / Advice
Nephrotic Syndrome Kidneys receive approximately 1 liter of blood every minute. Of this, about 100 ml gets filtered in the kidney. This contains, small molecules and few large molecules. This is due to the intricate cellular structure that prevents proteins from getting filtered into the urinary space. A derangement of this filter results in passage of heavy amounts of proteins in urine. This condition is called HeavyProteinuria or Nephrotic syndrome or Nephrosis. Definition:
In the urine, the protein excretion is > 3.5 gm/day or in children, it is >50mg/kg of body weight. In most cases, the serum albumin is <3gm/dl (normal>4), and passage of lipids in the urine. The lipids in the blood increase and swelling of face and feet also occur. Causes of Nephrotic Syndrome:
In children, most cases are due to Minimal Change Disease, FSGS, MPGN etc. In adults, most cases are due to primary illness while upto 30% may be due to secondary illness. Clinical Features:
Apart from Edema, ther…
Asthma or Bronchial Asthma is a common disease. About 75 % cases start in childhood before 10 years of age. A large no of patients stop having symptoms at the time of puberty and some may again have the disease in the later years. It is uncommon after 50 years of age. It can be troublesome, disabling and if not treated properly may be dangerous.
The disease results from heightened reactivity of the airways in response to irritants, allergens, fumes and at times exercise. It is typically intermittent and a person feels well when there is no ongoing attack of asthma. Symptoms:
Symptoms of asthma are shortness of breath, difficulty in breathing, cough and whistling sounds during breathing. These symptoms may also be seen in a no of heart, lung or infective conditions. Hence the diagnosis is usually made by experienced doctors after a few episodes have occurred!
The important markers of the disease are rapid reversibility of the signs and symptoms with appropriate treatment or spontaneousl…