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Japanese Encephalitis( JE)
Japanese Encephalitis( JE)
It is caused by a virus called JE Virus or JEV. It is now endemic in Asia. Most cases occur in the beginning of rainy season.
The disease is spread by mosquitoes. The virus multiplies in pigs and aquatic birds. When a mosquito bites human beings after biting pigs the virus is transmitted to man. Pigs are the most important hosts due to very high levels of virus in their blood.
In man the virus multiplies but does not reach levels where a mosquito after biting one human being can transmit it to others. The name of mosquito spreading it most often is Culex Vishnui. However, it is found in other species of mosquitoes as well.
After a gap of 5 to 15 days (called incubation period), signs and symptoms of the disease appear.
Most of the cases where the bite transmits the virus are subclinical or mild. Only about 1% of the cases are severe and brain inflammation or encephalitis is seen.
In the beginning, there is fever and sometimes loose motions and body aches. Chills and rigors, headache and vomiting may occur. A few days later involvement of the brain is seen with the occurrence of fits, drowsiness, and patients may become unconscious.
Diagnosis is achieved by finding antibodies against this virus in the blood (ELISA Test) and rarely by finding viral particles (NAAT )
They may remain bedridden for weeks.
20 to 30 % of the patients who are hospitalised with JE die due to the illness. Of the survivors, 40 to 50 % may have permanent neurological damage.
Prevention is accomplished by preventing mosquito bites.
A vaccine grown in vera cell line given in doses of .5 ml on day 0 and 28 is available for adults. A live attenuated vaccine and other vaccines have also been manufactured. These vaccines may have side effects.
For patients suffering from type II /adult onset diabetes :In type II diabetes, diagnosis is often late (after the disease has already been present for some time). In early days T2DM (short for the adult type of diabetes) are often without symptoms. Hence the delay in diagnosis. This means complications will be seen early after diagnosis. Foot Care :
Foot disease in diabetes may lead to difficulty in walking, pain and may lead to infections. If neglected amputation may be required.
Inspect feet with a mirror before going to sleep every night.
Use well fitting shoewear.
Do not walk bare feet even in the house.
Socks should be clean and correct size.
In case of deformities of feet, special shoes can be worn. Eye Care :
It is nowadays the commonest cause of blindness throughout the world. Continue Reading ~ Second Medical Opinion / Advice
Nephrotic Syndrome Kidneys receive approximately 1 liter of blood every minute. Of this, about 100 ml gets filtered in the kidney. This contains, small molecules and few large molecules. This is due to the intricate cellular structure that prevents proteins from getting filtered into the urinary space. A derangement of this filter results in passage of heavy amounts of proteins in urine. This condition is called HeavyProteinuria or Nephrotic syndrome or Nephrosis. Definition:
In the urine, the protein excretion is > 3.5 gm/day or in children, it is >50mg/kg of body weight. In most cases, the serum albumin is <3gm/dl (normal>4), and passage of lipids in the urine. The lipids in the blood increase and swelling of face and feet also occur. Causes of Nephrotic Syndrome:
In children, most cases are due to Minimal Change Disease, FSGS, MPGN etc. In adults, most cases are due to primary illness while upto 30% may be due to secondary illness. Clinical Features:
Apart from Edema, ther…
Asthma or Bronchial Asthma is a common disease. About 75 % cases start in childhood before 10 years of age. A large no of patients stop having symptoms at the time of puberty and some may again have the disease in the later years. It is uncommon after 50 years of age. It can be troublesome, disabling and if not treated properly may be dangerous.
The disease results from heightened reactivity of the airways in response to irritants, allergens, fumes and at times exercise. It is typically intermittent and a person feels well when there is no ongoing attack of asthma. Symptoms:
Symptoms of asthma are shortness of breath, difficulty in breathing, cough and whistling sounds during breathing. These symptoms may also be seen in a no of heart, lung or infective conditions. Hence the diagnosis is usually made by experienced doctors after a few episodes have occurred!
The important markers of the disease are rapid reversibility of the signs and symptoms with appropriate treatment or spontaneousl…