Showing posts from January, 2018

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Calcium Balance

Calcium Balance in a Healthy BodyCalcium is the most abundant mineral in the body. In a healthy person, each Kg of body weight includes about 22 gms of calcium. 99% of this calcium is in the bones. Normal diet contains about 1000 mg of calcium in a day. About 400 mg is absorbed from the intestines. Intestines secrete about 150 mg and thus 750 mg is passed in stools. About 9000 mg of calcium is filtered from the kidney. 8750 mg is reabsorbed and 250 mg is passed in the urine. Approximately 800 mg of bone calcium moves into the extracellular space (intestinal secretions, blood, fluid in the space outside blood vessels, lymph etc) and similar amount moves back into bones. Calcium Requirements Requirements in health change with age. Requirements in children areBirth to 1 yr about 200- 250 mg,1 to 3 yrs about 700mg,4 to 8 yrs 1000 mg andduring puberty 1300mg. In adults upto 50 yrs of age about 1000 mg is sufficient. Man older than 70 yrs and pregnant woman under 18 yrs may require 200 mg e…


Water BalanceLife on earth began in water. Water is the largest molecular constituent of the body. It makes up for about 60% of the total body weight in males and 55% in females. It provides a medium for metabolic functions in the body. Enzymatic reactions occur in aqueous media. It maintains the form of cells, tissues and organs, helps in digestion, evacuation of body wastes, maintenance of body temperature, lubrication in joints, prevention of infections and many more such functions. Water Distribution in the body Of the total body water, 2/3 is in the cells and 1/3 is extracellular. Of the extracellular water, 2/3 is outside the vascular system and 1/3 is in blood. Regulation of water balance The osmolality( a measure of solute concentration in water) is held in a very narrow limit in the human body. This typically is 280 to 295 mosm/kg. If the osmolality increases in the body fluids, a hormone called ADH is produced at the base of the brain. This hormone increases thirst and decreas…

Kidney Biopsy

Kidney Biopsy is a procedure in which a very tiny piece of the kidney is removed for examination under a microscope for diagnosis of the kidney disease. It may also inform us about prognosis (future course ) of the disease, severity of disease and suggest ways of treatment. The information given below is relevant for cases of native kidney biopsy. Indications for kidney biopsy: When urine shows high levels of protein, RBCs or other abnormalities like casts. Unexplained acute kidney injury Some cases of chronic kidney disease renal transplant dysfunction The procedure of kidney biopsy: Patients consent is taken. Blood group is checked. Tests are done to see that the bleeding and clotting is normal Ultrasonography to confirm that both kidneys are present , normal or large, more or less symmetrical, there is no stone disease, tumour or cyst etc. The person is made to lie down on his abdomen with the back facing up. After cleaning the area with antiseptics, the site of biopsy is injected w…

Vitamin B Complex

Vitamin B6  Pyridoxine / Pyridoxal / PyridoxamineVit B 6 is referred as pyridoxine which is available from plant sources and Pyridoxal phosphate which is available from animal sources. The vitamin is found in legumes, wheat grain covering(bran), meat, nuts etc. Deficiency states are due to poor intake of the vitamin. It can also occur if the bran is removed from wheat and starvation states. Deficiency may occur if less than .2 mg is taken daily. If a person is put on antituberculosis drug Isoniazid, deficiency symptoms can occur. This drug interacts with pyridoxal phosphate and hence vitamin B 6 is given together with Isoniazid to TB patients. Symptoms of deficiency are burning and strange sensations in hands and feet (neuropathy), confusion, madness (psychosis), anemia, fits, depression, red tongue and seborrhea. Deficiency is treated by giving Vit B6 in a dose of 50 mg/day. Intake of > 100 mg/day may cause toxic side effects which can be severe. Vitamin B12  CyanocobalminVitamin B12  …