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How to measure BP: The Correct Way
BP measured at home and clinics of doctors vary with the time of day or night, physical activity and methods of measuring. To reach a diagnosis of hypertension, various precautions are required. The following should be kept in mind while measuring BP.
Methods used for Measuring BP.
Mercury sphygmomanometers: Traditional and accurate. Requires correct training. Now not used due to a ban on the use of mercury due to environmental pollution.
Aneroid sphygmomanometers: The cuff may be inflated manually. With a stethoscope, sounds are heard over the brachial artery.
Automated oscillometric BP measurement: The most popular method nowadays. It has a battery operated system for inflating the cuff. The cuff deflates on its own and BP is displayed digitally.
Ambulatory BP monitoring(ABPM): Measures Blood Pressure every 15 mins in the day and every 30 to 60 mins at night. The readings can be recorded and later displayed digitally via a computer.
ABPM is the best and close to the ideal way of measuring BP. Not used often as the instrument is not widely available, is costly and not many people including health personnel are aware of it. An average ABPM recording is usually lower than other methods of measurement and hypertension is diagnosed when average readings are > 135/85 mm Hg.
For patients suffering from type II /adult onset diabetes :In type II diabetes, diagnosis is often late (after the disease has already been present for some time). In early days T2DM (short for the adult type of diabetes) are often without symptoms. Hence the delay in diagnosis. This means complications will be seen early after diagnosis. Foot Care :
Foot disease in diabetes may lead to difficulty in walking, pain and may lead to infections. If neglected amputation may be required.
Inspect feet with a mirror before going to sleep every night.
Use well fitting shoewear.
Do not walk bare feet even in the house.
Socks should be clean and correct size.
In case of deformities of feet, special shoes can be worn. Eye Care :
It is nowadays the commonest cause of blindness throughout the world. Continue Reading ~ Second Medical Opinion / Advice
Nephrotic Syndrome Kidneys receive approximately 1 liter of blood every minute. Of this, about 100 ml gets filtered in the kidney. This contains, small molecules and few large molecules. This is due to the intricate cellular structure that prevents proteins from getting filtered into the urinary space. A derangement of this filter results in passage of heavy amounts of proteins in urine. This condition is called HeavyProteinuria or Nephrotic syndrome or Nephrosis. Definition:
In the urine, the protein excretion is > 3.5 gm/day or in children, it is >50mg/kg of body weight. In most cases, the serum albumin is <3gm/dl (normal>4), and passage of lipids in the urine. The lipids in the blood increase and swelling of face and feet also occur. Causes of Nephrotic Syndrome:
In children, most cases are due to Minimal Change Disease, FSGS, MPGN etc. In adults, most cases are due to primary illness while upto 30% may be due to secondary illness. Clinical Features:
Apart from Edema, ther…
Asthma or Bronchial Asthma is a common disease. About 75 % cases start in childhood before 10 years of age. A large no of patients stop having symptoms at the time of puberty and some may again have the disease in the later years. It is uncommon after 50 years of age. It can be troublesome, disabling and if not treated properly may be dangerous.
The disease results from heightened reactivity of the airways in response to irritants, allergens, fumes and at times exercise. It is typically intermittent and a person feels well when there is no ongoing attack of asthma. Symptoms:
Symptoms of asthma are shortness of breath, difficulty in breathing, cough and whistling sounds during breathing. These symptoms may also be seen in a no of heart, lung or infective conditions. Hence the diagnosis is usually made by experienced doctors after a few episodes have occurred!
The important markers of the disease are rapid reversibility of the signs and symptoms with appropriate treatment or spontaneousl…