Showing posts from 2019

Stones of the Kidney, Ureter and Bladder

Stones in the urinary tract are common. Often these do not produce symptoms and are detected accidentally. Some of the conditions causing stones are genetic in nature. Recurrence of these stones is common, although difficult to diagnose correctly but if not treated in time may lead to permanent damage to the kidney. Recurrent stone disease should always be investigated thoroughly to find out the underlying cause. Investigations InvolveAnalysis of the stone if it has been passed spontaneously or removed surgically. Urine routine examination to look for crystals of oxalates, uric acid, cystine or other salts. Blood tests are done for levels of calcium, uric acid, oxalate, acid content, phosphorus, magnesium, parathormone levels etc. Kidney function also needs to be evaluated at the time. X Rays are carried out to know whether the stones are radioopaque (seen on X Rays) or radiolucent (seen only on USG). Urine tests are done to know specific gravity, acidity, calcium excretion, urate excretion…


Headache is one of the commonest symptoms causing significant distress to patients. Chronic headaches may recur for years and cause economic, social, psychological and physical issues. 90% of the headaches are benign. Headache includes pain in the area above the neck including the face. Chronic headaches are common and affect about 40 to 45 % of the population. Chronic headaches may be called tension headaches, migrainous or cluster headaches. The pain may be cutting, shearing, burning, dull or sharp, deep or superficial, throbbing, waxing or waning and of many other types. Tension headaches often produce a band like sensation or tightness in the head. These are not due to tension in the muscles as is commonly believed. These are also not due to “ Tension or Stress”. The exact mechanism is not clear. Migrainous headaches are usually throbbing, maybe in one half or both sides, usually last for a few hours to 1 or 2 days, and may be relieved by vomiting or sleep. A patient may know few…