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Riboflavin B2 Niacin B3

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Riboflavin (Vitamin B 2) This is another Vitamin of the B group. It is water soluble. The rich sources of this vitamin are, eggs, meat, milk and other dairy products, fish, green vegetables, yeast etc. This vitamin works in the cells mainly in energy transport, dehydrogenation, oxidation and electron transport mechanisms. Deficiency of this vitamin is common in cases  where food intake is less starvation,after natural and man-made calamities,in anorexia nervosaand diseases of intestines where absorption is limited,
Deficiency suggests relatively recent problem as the vitamin is not stored for long in the body. The daily requirement is about 1.3 mg in men and 1.1 mg in women. Deficiency causes non-specific signs and symptoms. The common manifestations are Redness of throat, Sores at angles of the mouth, Redness of inner lining of cheeks, Dermatitis with excess sebum production, Anemia etc.
Treatment consists of replacement of the hormone. Niacin (Vitamin B 3) The symptoms of Niacin defici…

Water Soluble Vitamins

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ThiamineBeriBeri was known to the Chinese 5000 years back. However the fact that it was due to Vitamin B1 deficiency was only known in 1926. This vitamin is found in nuts, legumes, yeast and rice (unpolished). It is not found in fruits, milk or vegetables. The meagre quantities found in these can be destroyed by cooking as well. This vitamin is required for the metabolism of carbohydrates and proteins in the body. It forms part of a chemical required for enzymatic activity. The requirement for man and woman is slightly more than 1 mg /day. A pregnant woman may require about one and half times of this. Severe deficiency of this vitamin can cause the following diseases: Infantile beriberi Adult beriberi Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome Leigh disease Infantile beriberi occurs in infants less than 6 months fed exclusively on formula feeds not having thiamine. It is now rare. Adult Beriberi: Dry beriberi usually causes nervous system disorder. Wet beriberi causes swelling of feet, breathlessness…

Vitamin D

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Vitamins are essential parts of nutrition, required in small quantities for normal metabolism. These are not produced in human bodies and their deficiency can cause diseases. Vitamin D however, is an exception as it can be produced in the human skin. Vitamin D : Rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults are bone diseases due to deficiency of Vitamin D. Rickets was 1st described in 1600 but the cause of the disease discovered later. Vit D is also called Calciferol. Vitamin D2 from plants is called ergosterol while the vitamin found in animal sources is Vitamin D3. Sources: Vitamin D is found in fatty fish, cod liver, eggs etc. Milk is, however, a poor source. Milk and vegetable oils in some countries may be fortified with Vitamin D. In human beings, Provitamin D in the skin is converted to Cholecalciferol. This then is converted 1st in the liver and then in the kidneys to its active form (1,25 OHD). Requirements of Vitamin D: About 600 units of Vit D are required from age 1 yr to 70 …